Friday, April 30, 2010

Roman Catholic Church is going through an epochal change

Follow this link to a very well-written story by Rachel Donadio in the New York Times.

Association of Lutheran Church Musicians: A worthy resource on Worship in the Lutheran church

  1.c Worship in Lutheran practice stands unashamedly in the liturgical tradition.

Rooted, reformed, and renewed in the history and experience of the Church, Lutherans-together with much of Christianity-share a concern for ordered worship. It is a Lutheran conviction that the needs of the people at prayer are most effectively met by forms and practices which draw on the collective experience of the whole Church. Lutheran worship is characterized neither by eccentricity nor faddishness, but values stability and continuity with the whole Church. Thus, historic patterns, the Church year, appointed readings and psalms, and a central core of hymnody have a prominent place in Lutheran worship.

[source:  Association of Lutheran Church Musicians

Thursday, April 29, 2010

Supreme Court decision that may be of interest

A splintered Supreme Court displayed its deep divisions over the separation of church and state Wednesday, with the court's prevailing conservatives signaling a broader openness to the idea that the Constitution does not require the removal of religious symbols from public land.
A 5 to 4 decision by the court overturns a federal judge's objection to a white cross erected more than 75 years ago on a stretch of the Mojave Desert to honor the dead of World War I.
Six justices explained their reasoning in writing, often using stirring rhetoric or emotional images of sacrifice and faith to describe how religion can both honor the nation's dead and divide a pluralistic nation.

[source:  Washington Post]

The Supreme Court opinion itself is found at

Wednesday, April 28, 2010

conclusion Norwegian-Lutheran Wedding - 1877

At the conclusion of the dinner, boxes of clay pipes were brought and filled for the men, who separated into groups under the trees, and as I watched the wreathes of blue smoke curling lazily up through the summer air, the whole scene seemed like a leaf torn from some old romance.

At parting we were served with coffee or beer and bakkels, a peculiar sort of fried cake, much eaten by the Scandinavians with their coffee.

[this newspaper report was submitted by a regular reader of this blog to whom I am grateful]

cont'd Norwegian Lutheran wedding - 1877

Herman Amberg Preus

From the church the whole company repaired for the bishop's house, half a mile distant.  The bride received her friends with gracious ease and pleasure:  the wealthier,  bearing their gifts of gold and silver, were met with no sunnier smile than the sunbrowned old woman with a 'kerchief pinned over her head, who placed in the young hands a brown tablecloth or some other simple testimonial of earnest friendliness.  Many, as they came up to congratulate her handed her money of different sums:  this she took gracefully and dropped into a silver box on the table at her side.  

By the time the last kind greetings were over the table was laden with an array of gifts that a metropolitan bride might have envied.  

After the reception the company went to the neighboring grove, where under a rude canopy, was spread a table capable of seating 250 guests.  At the first table sat the bridal party, the brides maids now attended by twelve fine-looking   young men, the ministers, teachers and dignitaries of the parishes and others in due order. 

The repast was fitting the board of Cedric,  the Saxon graced by the queen Rowena:  huge joints of meat, fowls curiously dressed with wild plums, vegetables, mountains of cake and bottles of native wine set thickly along the board.  A shed near formed a temporary kitchen, where six stoves and a battalion of cooks prepared the feast.  The table was necessarily spread several times to accommodate all the guests.

A look into the past - a Norwegian Lutheran wedding in Wisconsin - 1877

A Norwegian Wedding     In a Little Wisconsin Town   [From the Chicago Inter-Ocean]

As I neared the little church of Springdale, a small bell began to ring in short, quick strokes, and I saw approaching a long procession of carriages, buggies and farm wagons filled with men, women and children, whom I readily recognized as Norwegians, the principal inhabitants of this thrifty region.

They stopped before the church, and from the foremost carriage alighted first two gentlemen and then two ladies, one of whom was young and fair with snowy dress and sweeping veil - a bride.  I joined the throng about the church.  The elderly gentleman taking the bride on his arm, followed by the mother and groom and twelve white-robed bridesmaids, ascended the steps.

The church door was closed and barred but as the father shook the handle and pronounced some words in his native tongue, it was opened from within and the bridal party entered.  Many unable to get in stationed themselves outside at open windows.

I learned from a friendly Norsk that it was the marriage day of the daughter of Bishop Preus, the head of our flourishing churches, an able, cultivated gentleman.  He had invited the four congregations to attend his daughter's wedding, and about 600 had reported. 

The simple church was festooned with garlands of oak leaves and the seats of honor draped in white, two places being further adorned by strips of curiously wrought tapestry, as seats for the bride and groom.  A similar piece was placed for them to kneel again.  The ceremony was fully an hour long and included chanting, singing and prayer, and concluded with a long address to the bride by her father, the bishop.

[Part I of a report on a Norwegian-Lutheran wedding in Wisconsin.  From the Springfield, Masschusetts Republican, September 13, 1877, p. 3]

Saturday, April 24, 2010

The Fourth Sunday

The Collect

Almighty God, which dost make the minds of all faithful men to be of one will:  Grant unto thy people, that they may love the thing which thou commandest, and desire that which thou dost promise; that among the sundry and manifold changes of the world, our hearts may surely there be fixed, where as true joys are to be found, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

The Epistle [James I

Every good gift, and every perfect gift, is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of change.  Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be the first fruits of his creatures.  Wherefore (dear brethren) let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath.  For the wrath of man worketh not that which is righteous before God. Wherefore lay apart all filthiness and superfluity of maliciousness, and receive with meekness the word that is grafted in you, which is able to save your souls.

For a sermon by Martin Luther on this text, please click on the link.

The Gospel [John 16

Jesus said unto his disciples, Now I go my way to him that sent me, and none of you asketh me whether I go.  But because I have said such things unto you, your hearts are full of sorrow.  Nevertheless I tell you the truth, it is expedient for you that I go away.  For if I go not away, that Comforter will not come unto you.  But if I depart, I will send him unto you.  And when he is come, he will rebuke the world of sin, and righteousness, and of judgment.  Of sin, because they believe not on me.  Of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye shall see me no more. Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged already.  I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them away now.  Howbeit when he is come (which is the Spirit of truth), he will lead you into all truth.  He shall not speak of himself, but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak; and he will show you things to come.  He shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine, and shall show unto you  All things that the Father hath are mine, and show unto you.

For a sermon by Martin Luther, go to

Friday, April 23, 2010

more on the Anglican Church

For a very well-written and thorough article on the Anglican Church, read Jane Kramer's article in the current issue of The New Yorker magazine.

Monday, April 19, 2010

#5 'Abiding Word'

One of the vendors was Pastor Timothy J. Swenson   I bought a copy of Pastor Swenson's book titled Stand and Confess.  I will read Pastor Swenson's book to learn about the issues which have prompted the  current difficulties in the ELCA.  

This was the first of four stops for me on my pub crawl across Lutheranism.  Next stop:   Ramada Mall of America on Thursday, April 22nd for the Congress on the Lutheran Confessions 2010.  This somewhat pretentiously titled conference is a free conference but appears to be more LC-MS than anything else.  What are the Missourians up to?

#4 'Word Alone'

The Abiding Word convention leaders were very solicitous of the views of the audience.  From left to right:  Ed Skutshek, Bruce Wilder, Ryan Schwarz, Jaynan Clark.

#3 'Word Alone'

Jaynan Clark is the President of Word Alone.  In her address to the convention she spoke of her experience in learning unbelief in the Lutheran seminary which she had attended.  She was taught that the Virgin Mary wasn't really a virgin, she was a young woman.  How, she asked, could that be since she had learned from her youth to confess every Sunday that Jesus had been 'born of the Virgin Mary'?

Ms. Clark is a dramatic speaker.  She spoke of the attempts of the church bishops to subvert the activities of the dissidents.  She said that the calling for the group was to maintain a faithful ministry.

She concluded her remarks with an earnest prayer for repentance.  Her prayer was given from the floor of the sanctuary  while she was on her knees facing the altar.  I had never seen anything like it in my sixty-seven years of being a Lutheran.

#2 'Word Alone'

The ELCA survivors who have gathered to form a new church consider themselves to be Confessional, Missional, and Doxological.   They disagree among themselves about ecclesiology which they consider to be adiaphora (something neither commanded nor forbidden).  Some favor the bishop system while others say that bishops aren't necessary, that Jesus is the only bishop necessary. (Doesn't this remind you of the English Dissidents in the time of King James I who were so bitterly opposed and persecuted by Archbishop Laud?)

There are, of course, other Lutherans on the scene but these Golden Valley Lutherans will not join them.  The LCMC (Lutheran Christians in Mission for Christ) are not to be considered as 'LC-MS Lite.'  The members of the LCMC will ordain women as the ELCA has done for years and will not practice what is known as Closed Communon ('it's the Lord's Supper, not the Lutheran's Supper.')

There is a sign of co-operation between the Canadian branches of the two traditions.  The Canadians (CALC)  have turned to the Canadian branch of the LC-MS which operates a seminary in Edmonton.  The idea is that the LC-MS will take all students for enrollment, male or female.  The Missouri Synod says that it will do so without theological compromise and the CALC says that they won't compromise any of their principles either.  In other words, the LC-MS will educate the women but won't ordain them while the CALC will ordain their students into the ministry after they have completed their course of study in the Missouri Synod affiliated Canadian seminary.

'Word Alone' - Golden Valley MN April 19, 2010

 I have mapped out a Spring schedule for myself where I will attend events across several different venues of  Lutheranism.  I am a member of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod and I am attempting to get a feel for what my fellow Lutherans are thinking and doing.

On Mondays and Tuesdays I am noon recess supervisor ('Recess Dude') at King of Grace Lutheran School in Golden Valley.  Because Word Alone was meeting across town at Calvary,  I decided to ask for an excuse from my duty today so that I might  attend the convention.

My own Lutheran experiences are limited to 52 years of membership in the ELS and 15 years in the LCMS.  I understand more about the conservative side of Lutheranism than I do about the ELCA .  I learned a thing or two about ELCAism today.

Dissidence and dissatisfaction with church leadership is not new to Lutherans.  Just yesterday Nicholas Kristof wrote in The New York Times that people should not confuse the Vatican for the real Catholic church.  The Vatican is that all-male hierarchy that Kristof describes as "a modern echo of the Pharisees whom Jesus criticized."   The real church is "the grass-roots that does far more good in the world than it ever gets credit for.  This is the church that supports extraordinary aid organizations like Catholic Relief Services and Caritas, saving lives every day, and that operates superb schools that provide needy children an escalator out of poverty."

The Word Alone people have been at odds with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America for several years.  Most recently and most dramatically the ELCA last year voted to allow individual churches to ordain homosexuals into the ministry if they were in a committed relationship.  The ELCA took this action to accommodate those who sincerely believed that it was proper so to do.

The theme of the convention was "It's a New Day."   The ELCA has forced many of its faithful members to think through their membership in their church.   Actions are being taken to form a new church body outside of the ELCA.  Of course the ELCA hierarchy (65 bishops) is opposed to any disruption of the organized church and is actively working to undercut the credibility of any who oppose them.  The New Day is the formation of a new church.

Saturday, April 17, 2010

The Third Sunday after Easter

Christ Taking Leave of the Apostles, Duccio di Buoninsegna, 1308-11, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena

The Collect

Almighty God, which showeth to all men that be in error the light of thy truth, to the intent that they may return into the way of righteousness:  Grant unto all them that be admitted into the fellowship of Christ's religion, that they may eschew those things that be contrary to their profession, and follow all such things as be agreeable to the same; through our Lord Jesus Christ.

The Epistle [1 Pet. 2

Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly  lusts which fight against the soul, and see that ye have honest conversation among the Gentiles, that whereas they backbite you as evildoers, they may see your good works, and praise God in the day of visitation.  Submit yourselves therefore to every man for the Lord's sake, whether it be unto the king as unto the chief head, either unto rulers, as unto them that are sent of him for the punishment of evildoers, but for the laud of them that do well.  For so is the will of God, that with well doing, ye may stop the mouths of foolish and ignorant men:  as free, and not as having the liberty for a cloak of maliciousness, but even as the servants of God.  Honor all men.  Love brotherly fellowship.  Fear God.  Honor the king.

Follow this link to a sermon by Martin Luther

The Gospel [John 16

Jesus said to his disciples, After a while ye shall not see me, and again after a while ye shall see me, for I go to the Father.  Then said some of his disciples between themselves, What is this that he saith unto us, After a while ye shall not see me and again after a while ye shall see me, and that I go to the Father?  They said therefore, What is this that he saith, After a while?  We cannot tell what he saith.  Jesus perceived that they would ask him, and said unto them, Ye inquire of this between yourselves because I said, After a while ye shall not see me, and again after a while ye shall see me.  Verily, verily, I say unto you, ye shall weep and lament, but contrariwise the world shall rejoice.  Ye shall sorrow, but your sorrow shall be turned to joy.  A woman when she travaileth hath sorrow, because her hour is come.  But as soon as she is delivered of the child, she remembereth no more the anguish for joy that a man is born into the world.  And ye now therefore have sorrow, but I will see you again, and your hearts shall rejoice, and your joy shall no man take from you.

follow the link to a sermon by Martin Luther

Thursday, April 15, 2010

A link between Martin Luther and the current crisis in the Roman Catholic church

Readers of this blog may not have ready access to The New Yorker magazine.  In the magazine's current issue Hendrik Hertzberg makes an interesting connection between Martin Luther and the current Roman Catholic church crisis.  Follow the link

Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Some assert that the Pope should be prosecuted...

The basic argument is that the Pope has committed 'crimes against humanity' and should be prosecuted.  Some don't see it that way, of course, and the thoughtful reader may decide for himself. 

Some will be outraged that this should even be suggested, but it is a part of the story. Is it a desire  of the disaffected left-wing media to disgrace a holy man? 

Sir Ivor Roberts  suggests a way of action in this story for "those who sincerely want to see the Church's Augean stables comprehensively cleaned."  Follow the link

Saturday, April 10, 2010

The First Sunday after Easter

King of Grace Lutheran Church (ELS), Golden Valley MN

The Collect

Lord God, heavenly Father, You delivered Your Son for our offenses, and raised Him again for our justification:  We beseech You, grant us Your Holy Spirit, that He may rule and govern us according to Your will; graciously keep us in the true faith, defend us from all sins, and after this life raise us to eternal life: through the same  etc.

The Epistle [1 John 5

All that is born of God, overcometh the world.  And this is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith.  Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?  This Jesus Christ is he that came by water and blood, not by water only, but by water and blood.  And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth.  For there are three which bear record in heaven:  the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these three are one.  If we receive the witness of men, the witness of God is greater.  For this is the witness of God that is greater, which he testified of his Son.  He that believeth on the Son of God, hath the witness in himself.  He that believeth not God, hath made him a liar, because he believeth not the record that God gave his Son.  And this is the record, how that God hath given unto eternal life, and this life is in his Son.  He that hath the Son, hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God, hath not life.

For a sermon by Martin Luther on this text, please follow the link

The Gospel [John 20

The same day at night, which was the first day of the Sabbaths, when the doors were shut (where the disciples were assembled together for fear of the Jews) came Jesus and stood in the mids [middle], and said unto them, Peace be unto you.  And when he had so said, he showed unto them his hands and his side.  Then were the disciples glad when they saw the Lord.  Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you.  As my Father sent me, even so send I you also.  And when he had said these words, he breathed on them, and said unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost.  Whosoever's sins ye retain, they are retained.

Follow the link to a sermon by Martin Luther on this text

For a second Luther sermon go to

Thursday, April 8, 2010

Bach's Cantata #4 - 'Christ lag in Todesbanden'

Christ lag in Todesbanden
Für unsre Sünd gegeben,,
Er ist wieder erstanden
Und hat uns bracht das Leben;
Des wir sollen fröhlich sein,,
Gott loben und ihm dankbar sein
Und singen halleluja,,

Christ lay in death's bonds
handed over for our sins,
he is risen again
and has brought us life
For this we should be joyful,
praise God and be thankful to him
and sing allelluia,


Den Tod niemand zwingen kunnt
Bei allen Menschenkindern,.
Das macht' alles unsre Sünd,
Kein Unschuld war zu finden..
Davon kam der Tod so bald
Und nahm über uns Gewalt,
Hielt uns in seinem Reich gefangen..

Nobody could overcome death
among all the children of mankind.
Our sin was the cause of all this,
no innocence was to be found.
Therefore death came so quickly
and seized power over us,.
held us captive in his kingdom.
Alleluia !


Jesus Christus, Gottes Sohn,,
An unser Statt ist kommen
Und hat die Sünde weggetan,
Damit dem Tod genommen
All sein Recht und sein Gewalt,
Da bleibet nichts denn Tods Gestalt,
Den Stach'l hat er verloren.

Jesus Christ, God's son,
has come to our place
and has put aside our sins,
and in this way from death has taken
all his rights and his power,
here remains nothing but death's outward form,
it has lost its sting.


Es war ein wunderlicher Krieg,
Da Tod und Leben rungen,
Das Leben behielt den Sieg,,
Es hat den Tod verschlungen.
Die Schrift hat verkündigt das,
Wie ein Tod den andern fraß,
Ein Spott aus dem Tod ist worden.

It was a strange battle
where death and life struggled.
Life won the victory,
it has swallowed up death
Scripture has proclaimed
how one death ate the other,
death has become a mockery.


Hier ist das rechte Osterlamm,
Davon Gott hat geboten,
Das ist hoch an des Kreuzes Stamm
In heißer Lieb gebraten,
Das Blut zeichnet unsre Tür,
Das hält der Glaub dem Tode für,
Der Würger kann uns nicht mehr schaden.

Here is the true Easter lamb
that God has offered
which high on the trunk of the cross
is roasted in burning love,
whose blood marks our doors,
which faith holds in front of death,
the strangler can harm us no more


So feiern wir das hohe Fest
Mit Herzensfreud und Wonne,
Das uns der Herre scheinen läßt,
Er ist selber die Sonne,
Der durch seiner Gnade Glanz
Erleuchtet unsre Herzen ganz,
Der Sünden Nacht ist verschwunden..

Thus we celebrate the high feast
with joy in our hearts and delight
that the Lord lets shine for us,
He is himself the sun
who through the brilliance of his grace
enlightens our hearts completely,
the night of sin has disappeared.
Alleluia !


Wir essen und leben wohl
In rechten Osterfladen,
Der alte Sauerteig nicht soll
Sein bei dem Wort Gnaden,
Christus will die Koste sein
Und speisen die Seel allein,,
Der Glaub will keins andern leben..

We eat and live well
on the right Easter cakes,
the old sour-dough should not
be with the word grace,
Christ will be our food
and alone feed the soul,
faith will live in no other way.


English Translation by Francis Browne (January 2005)
Contributed by Francis Browne (January 2005)

3rd - BWV 4

#2 BWV 4

'Christ lay in the bonds of death' - BWV 4

Christian Legal Society v Martinez

On April 19, 2010, the U.S. Supreme Court will hear oral arguments in Christian Legal Society v. Martinez, a case that will determine whether a public institution can refuse to officially recognize a religiously based organization that prevents those who do not share its religious and moral values from becoming voting members. The case arose in 2004 when a chapter of the Christian Legal Society (CLS), expressed a desire to register as an official student group at the University of California’s Hastings College of Law. Groups that are officially recognized by the school enjoy certain privileges, including public funding. But CLS requirements effectively bar non-Christians and non-celibate gays and lesbians from becoming voting members or assuming leadership positions, which is in direct conflict with the law school’s non-discrimination policy. After six years of litigation in lower courts, the case is now before the Supreme Court. The high court’s decision could be narrowly tailored and impact only educational institutions, or could be broad and sweeping, affecting the rules governing a wide array of groups that accept government funding.

[source:  The Pew Forum]

Tuesday, April 6, 2010

Imagine that. The Bible in 66 verses

Sarah Wilson has an interesting piece in The Lutheran Forum in which she composes one verse for each of the 66 books in the Bible.   Go to

Tuesday in Easter Week

The Collect

Almighty Father, which hast given thy only Son to die for our sins, and to rise again for our justification:  Grant us to put away the leaven of malice and wickedness, that we may always serve thee in pureness of living and truth, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

King of Grace Lutheran Church, Golden Valley MN

'O hear What cheer!/ Christ victorious Riseth glorious,/Life He giveth...'

He is arisen! Glorious Word!
Now reconciled is God my Lord;
The gates of heav'n are open.
My Jesus died triumphantly,
And Satan's arrows broken lie,
Destroyed hell's direst weapon.
O hear   What cheer!
Christ victorious  Riseth glorious,
Life He giveth --
He was dead, but see, He liveth!

Han er opstanden!  Store Bud!, hymn #348, Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary

King of Grace Lutheran Church, Golden Valley MN

Sunday, April 4, 2010

from Handel's 'Messiah'

Monday in Easter Week

The Collect

Almighty God, which through thy only begotten Son Jesus Christ hath overcome death and opened unto us the gate of everlasting life: We humbly beseech thee, that as by thy special grace preventing us [i.e. predisposing us, going before], thou dost put in our minds good desires, so by thy continual help, we may bring the same to good effect; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth, etc.

Wesley's 'Jesus Christ is Risen Today'

Easter hymns con'td

Easter hymn

A beautiful Easter hymn

Saturday, April 3, 2010

Easter Oratorio (3)

Easter Oratorio (2)

Easter Oratorio (1)


Tintoretto, The Resurrection of Christ, 1579-81, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice

Christ rising again from the dead, now dieth not. Death from henceforth hath no power upon him. For in that he died but once to put away sin: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. And so likewise, count yourselves dead unto sin, but living unto God in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Christ is risen again the first fruits of them that sleep: for seeing that by man came death, by man also cometh the resurrection of the dead. for as by Adam all men doe die, so by Christ, all men shall be restored to life.

The Collect

Almighty God which through thy only begotten Son Jesus Christ, hast overcome death, and opened unto us the gate of everlasting life: We humbly beseech thee, that as by thy special grace preventing us, thou dost put in our minds good desires, so by thy continual help, we may bring the same to good effect; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth, etc.

The Epistle [Col. 3

If ye be risen again with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. Set your affection on heavenly things, and not on earthly things. For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God. Whensoever Christ (which is our life) shall show himself, then shall ye also appear with him in glory. Mortify therefore your earthly members, fornication, uncleanness, unnatural lust, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is worshiping of idols, for which things' sake, the wrath of God useth to come on the children of unbelief, among whom ye walked sometime when ye lived in them.

The Gospel [John 20

The first day of the Sabbaths, came Mary Magdalene early (when it was yet dark) unto the sepulcher, and saw the stone taken away from the grave. Then she ran and came to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the grave, and we cannot tell where they have laid him. Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came unto the sepulcher. They ran both together and that other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulcher. And when he had stooped down, he saw the linen clothes lying, yet went he not in. Then came Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulcher, and saw the linen clothes lie, and the napkin that was about his head not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. Then went in also that other disciple which came first to the sepulcher, and he saw and believed. For as yet they knew not the Scripture that he should rise again from death. Then the disciples went away again to their own home.

Cool Pachelbel cont'd

Thursday, April 1, 2010


The altarpiece representing - left to right - Humility (figure with dove), Faith (woman seated on left holding cross and chalice), Love (woman seated on right about to nurse a child), Hope (boy figure on right holding anchor and lily), and Devotion (figure on far right holding palm branch)

Follow the link to a very interesting display of photos of one of Germany's great cathedrals.

Luther's Good Friday Sermon on How To Contemplate Christ's Suffering

Crown of Thorns, 1308-11, Duccio di Buoninsenga, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Diena